Jackson Pollock’s Drip Paintings In Context

The contemporary aims that Jackson Pollock refers to impose on the artist an attitude and a mentality that would have been unthinkable in the Renaissance. Pollock’s large drip and splatter canvases offer the viewer an opportunity for internal reflection. The complex web of color emphasizes the surface of the canvas and the painterly application of the medium. The eye is not seduced by one particular area or drawn out of the picture frame. There is little overt evidence of representation, of the world beyond the canvas.

The influential art critic Clement Greenberg saw Jackson Pollock’s work as evidence of the total autonomy of artistic practice. But can art ever be truly autonomous?

Jackson Pollock’s Artistic Background

In the 1930s Jackson Pollock’s work had been much more political and public. His work through the Federal Arts Project (part of the New Deal) hNYC - MoMA Jackson Pollocks Number 1A 1948ad taken him into the studio of the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros, where his “regionalism” was broadened out into a flirtation with communism and new techniques with the use of enamel and spray paint.

However, the closing of the Federal Arts Project in 1943, which many politicians regarded as a Left-wing organization, led to Pollock’s first successful one-man exhibition at the Guggenheim Galleries.

Jackson Pollock at work with his drip paintingJackson Pollock’s Art Turns Inwards

By now his work was almost entirely concerned with the Jungian search for mystical and classical symbols that would exorcise his increasing alienation and flight into alcoholism. The questions and conflicts of modern life became internal, personal ones against the background of the war in Europe, as he struggled with drink and the pressures of a demanding New York art market.

In a sense this mentality could be described as a contemporary phenomenon, the reaction of an artist once committed to the public, political arena who, under subtle pressure from political undercurrents, and against a background of war, was forced to sink into himself. His later spatter techniques, influenced by the Surrealists’ automatic paintings, were devoid of the broader political perspectives of European artists. Here, on these large canvases, Jackson Pollock expressed how he believed it felt to be “modern” in America.

Political and Social Forces Influence Jackson Pollock

Despite Greenberg’s contention, Jackson Pollock was not in total control of the way he worked. His individual “contemporary aims” had been maneuvered by wider forces.

  • In 1939 when the Soviet-German Pact was forged there was disillusionment on the Left.
  • The aims of the Social Realists and political works by people such as Diego Rivera and Ben Shahn were undermined by the art establishment.
  • America consolidated its political power, the might of its industry and its armaments.
  • The Soviet Union was perceived as a threat, resulting in any political and social movements at home being undermined.

Jackson Pollock and American Avant-garde

On the artistic side, therefore, Jackson Pollock’s works were promoted at a period when, arguably, it was politically expedient to show a new American avant-garde emerging. From this perspective, American dealers and collectors, in particular, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, sought to “save” European art from the fascist threat, becoming the new guardians and instigators of the contemporary art scene. Thus in 1948 when the Marshall Plan was devised, Greenberg brought out his timely article, “The Decline of Cubism” claiming that the European avant-garde was redundant.

In light of the above argument, therefore, when Jackson Pollock speaks of his “contemporary aims” and critics claim autonomy for art, it is helpful to try to make a connection between the stated aims of the individual artist and critic. And the perceived wider aims of the society in which they are forced to participate in order to make a living.

At the same time, the actual idea of autonomous art is, in itself, a valuable indicator of the social and historical period in which it was conceived.

Perhaps only the passing of time can give a fair, if not purely objective, analysis of any work of art.

Sources:

  • Harrison, Charles. Introduction: Modernism, Problems and Methods. The Open University, Arts: A Third Level Course 1984
  • 1951, radio interview as quoted in: Lucie Smith, Edward. Lives of the Great Twentieth Century Artists, London, 1986

A Rundown on Found Object Art

For some artists, it is as simple as collecting objects on sidewalks in a shared neighborhood. It can be refurbishing used tires into environmental art statements or stylish wallets or briefcases. It depends on how broad your view of found art is.

Mundane everyday objects made into artWhat is Found Art?

Art that is found. Most contemporary artists now interpret this as rediscovered, refurbished, repurposed, or reused. It may be that you are looking at something left on the side of a street, thinking, “Why did they throw that out? It needs a paint job.” You, the artist, find an irresistible object in a store, on the street, in your friend’s garage while you are helping to get ready for a yard sale, or under your bed.

Some found objects are created in the fury and frenzy of artistic creation. In the excitement of creating a found art piece, some artists deconstruct items in their home or will use objects in their immediate vicinity to assist in evoking emotions felt at the time or powerful concepts. Found Object Art is created by the use of every day or truly found objects, given purpose and significance by those who find and conceptualized them into artwork.

Is Found Art Modern Art? History into Contemporary Art

Found Art is thought to have practicing origins from the artist Marcel Duchamp, whose ready-made works were controversial for the turn of the twentieth century. He created such famous works as Fountain and Bottle Rack.

Around the time of Pablo Picasso’s cubist phase of creation, Picasso also employed the use of found objects, such as La Petite Chouette (an owl constructed from found objects), which was made from household and building materials, including screws, pliers, a missing piece of a saucepan, and pliers. The piece is said to have sold in 2000 for over one million dollars. Picasso’s piece was grounded in expressing the emotions he felt at the moment of creation.

Female artists had their hands in the beginnings of found art as well. Louise Nelson created unique three-dimensional sculptures from wood in the 1930s.

Dadaists (ManRay as a prime mover) and Surrealists incorporated found objects into their practices. Post-Modernists or Contemporary works carry on the tradition today with variants and combinations of pre-occurring art movements, with new subgenres, such as Steampunk, Assemblage, and Junk Art. Both Found Art and its subgenre Assemblage have a relation to collage, of which Picasso is a famous practitioner. Rauschenberg’s paintings are a dynamic combination of a flat surface with protruding found objects, resulting in a common connection between everyday life and art as more than association.

Duchamp, Hirst, ManRay, Picasso, Nelson, Koons, Schwitters. These are but a few of the names that assisted in the success, persistence, and development of Found Art as a movement.

The development of Found Art can also be seen in mainstream consumerism and the efforts of society to Go Green. Used Rubber USA, an intriguing example, takes used tires and reuses them, in the form of stylish wallets, ID holders, briefcases, and other forms.

Found Art is Not True Art? The Critics

Throughout its development as an art movement and practice, Found Art has faced criticism. Duchamp’s Fountain (an unusable urinal) was rejected in 1917 by the Society of Independent Artists as not true art. There is still those today who view Found Art and other related movements as a not a true form of art. Many, like Damien Hirst, suggest that even traditional forms of art are truly Found Art. (Paint is transformed into its medium by scientific and biological means and placed on a canvas, given significance by the artist and the viewer.)

There were those before the Modern art era who recognized the potential of turning everyday objects into fine art. We see it in the conceptual, aesthetic, and philosophical writings from the Greeks into the modern period. But what is Found Art?

The beauty of this movement is that is left up to the artist, who gives the found object its own life through the artist’s concept. An object that has undergone its period of existence and use has its own ready-made significance of which the artist taps into or chooses to ignore.